Various forms of Law exist around the world. Some of these are common law, space law and international law. These forms of law vary in terms of the types of laws and their application, but there are certain legal issues that are common to most of them.
Unlike statutory law, which is based on written legislation, common law is a legal system that draws on legal precedents and institutionalized opinions. Common law courts use an adversarial system. This system of decision-making is more flexible than statutory law. Often, a court may change its old legal doctrines in response to new trends in the society.
Common law also draws on records of similar cases. This is known as case-based reasoning. The decision is often long, with reasons given for its rulings.
This process is a key component in the development of common law. As judges agglomerate past decisions, they create precedent.
Generally speaking, international law covers all aspects of national law, such as treaties, conventions, agreements, and protocols. It also provides a common conceptual language for the international actors involved in political and economic activities.
The origins of international law can be traced back to antiquity. The ancient Greek political philosophy provided basic notions of governance, political relations, and independence. The Greek scholars of the Byzantine Empire contributed significantly to the development of international law.
Early forms of international law included a wide range of international agreements negotiated by various polities throughout the world. For example, a treaty between Lagash and Umma, the two ancient Mesopotamian city-states, was signed around 2100 bce.
Traditionally, the concept of space law was developed when governments dominated space activities. However, as space technologies developed, non-state actors have taken an increasingly influential role in space law.
As more and more actors enter the space ecosystem, the competition for space utilization will increase. Consequently, the current system of space governance will need to be adapted to meet the needs of the future.
Space law is not a uniform set of rules. While there are several legal instruments that provide guidance, not all nations are parties to all of them. This creates a challenge when it comes to creating a comprehensive framework for space activities.
Whether you are a voter, judge, election official, or student interested in election law, the Election Law Program at the College of William & Mary Moritz College of Law offers you a wealth of information. The program offers web-based lectures, eBenchbooks, and other resources for education and practical assistance.
The program’s resources include an online database of state election laws, a Judicial Orders Database, and streamable webinars. The Election Law Program also publishes the Manual for Judges, a comprehensive source of election law cases and materials. The Manual for Judges also provides a detailed analysis of judicial relief available for election law violations.